Anatomy Of The Vertebrae

The lumbar vertebrae are, in human anatomy, the five vertebrae between the rib cage and the pelvis. They are the largest segments of the vertebral column and are characterized by the absence of the foramen transversarium within the transverse process (as it is only found in the cervical region), and by the absence of facets on the sides of the body. They are designated L1 to L5, starting at the top. The lumbar vertebrae help support the weight of the body, and permit movement.

Lumbar vertebrae animation4
Lumbar vertebrae animation

Position of human lumbar vertebrae (shown in red). It consists of 5 bones, from top to down, L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5.

Thoracic vertebrae animation

Thoracic Vertebrae

In humans, there are twelve thoracic vertebrae and they are intermediate in size between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae; they increase in size going towards the lumbar vertebrae, with the lower ones being a lot larger than the upper. They are distinguished by the presence of facets on the sides of the bodies for articulation with the heads of the ribs, and facets on the transverse processes of all, except the eleventh and twelfth, for articulation with the tubercles of the ribs.

Cervical vertebrae animation

Cervical Vertebrae

In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae are the vertebrae of the neck, immediately below the skull. 

Thoracic vertebrae in all mammalian species are those vertebrae that also carry a pair of ribs, and lie caudal to the cervical vertebrae. Further caudally follow the lumbar vertebrae, which also belong to the trunk, but do not carry ribs.

Latissimus dorsi muscle animation

Latissimus Dorsi Muscle

The latissimus dorsi, meaning ‘broadest [muscle] of the back’, is the larger, flat, dorso-lateral muscle on the trunk, posterior to the arm, and partly covered by the trapezius on its median dorsal region. Latissimi dorsi are commonly known as “lats”, especially among bodybuilders.

Serratus posterior inferior muscle animation

Serratus Posterior Inferior

The Serratus posterior inferior muscle (or posterior serratus) is a muscle of the human body. The muscle lies at the junction of the thoracic and lumbar regions. The origin arises from the vertebrae T11 through L2. The muscle’s insertion is the lower border of the 9th through 12th ribs.


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